Dec. 12 to 19, 2003
Houston Schools Wary in Educational
Software Deal with Neil Bush /
Getting a new kick ; Schools try non-traditional PE classes to get kids moving / Grand Rapids Press
NCLB becomes guidepost
/ Journal News (
Religious clothing generally
allowed in U.S. schools / CNN.com No Child Left Behind act must change, officials
say / Atlanta Journal-Constitution 2003 SCHOOL REPORT CARD. Pupils buck trend
at least in 1 place /
Chicago Tribune Meaningful conclusions put in doubt; Errors
fill state testing data
/ Chicago Tribune
No Child Left Behind act must change, officials
say / Atlanta Journal-Constitution
2003 SCHOOL REPORT CARD. Pupils buck trend
at least in 1 place /
Meaningful conclusions put in doubt; Errors
fill state testing data
/ Chicago Tribune
14--As Neil Bush's soap-operatic life took another twist in
board in June already had approved spending $115,000 this academic year
to use the company's eighth-grade
But the board voted 5-3 to delay accepting the donations, with some board members saying they worried they might be accused of helping Bush cash in on his family name.
Bush's business dealings have recently come under scrutiny with his contentious divorce from his wife, Sharon. In a deposition, Bush admitted that Ignite investor Winston Wong, a Taiwanese semiconductor tycoon, paid him $2 million in stock for consulting in the semiconductor industry, even though he has no experience in the field.
"I'm not, as a trustee, going to engage in another debacle; we've had enough of those on our hands," said board member Larry Marshall, referring to the dropout reporting scandal that has recently rocked HISD.
Even though Ignite has been implemented in 17 HISD middle schools and six high schools since August, board members asked for more information about the program's performance and how HISD entered into the agreement before approving the outside funding.
Ken Leonard, president of Ignite, said he understands why HISD trustees would want to keep a "low profile" because of recent negative coverage, but he expects the matter to be quickly resolved.
The Austin-based company has been frequently examined in the media since Bush founded it in 1999, primarily because of its unusual funding sources and his family ties. Some of the $23 million the company has raised in four rounds of financing has come from foreign oil and computer magnates, and other funds have come from GOP donors who are close to the Bush family. Commentators and watchdog groups have suggested that these contributions were made in the hopes of gaining access to the White House.
also note that Bush's two brothers are strong advocates of educational
policies that could greatly benefit his company. President Bush made
educational accountability one of his top priorities as
School administrators and teachers, increasingly judged by how many of their students pass state-mandated accountability tests, are often turning to educational software to try to motivate bored or troubled students.
"Sales in Texas are usually driven by mathematics and reading, but we expect social studies will be emerging as a more important subject area in the next few years, largely as a result of TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills, the new state-mandated test)," said Tom Deliganis of Houston, regional vice president for Plato Learning, the largest provider of educational software in the state.
Deliganis said Neil Bush tried to hire him in 2000.
"He's a competitor, and I don't necessarily want to see him do well, but I don't get the impression he's a sleazy guy," Deliganis said. "I get the impression he's trying to improve education."
But few can forget Bush's checkered business history. In the late 1980s, he served as director of Silverado Savings and Loan, which collapsed during the S&L scandal and cost taxpayers about $1 billion. A civil lawsuit against Bush and other Silverado officers was settled for $49.5 million.
Bush, 47, last week denied that he is trying to capitalize on his brothers' substantial influence.
"I've had zero conversation (with my brothers) regarding policy, and effectively none about my business," he said.
He called his new business a "definite lifelong focus of mine."
dyslexic student who often fell behind in middle school, Bush said he
endured an oppressive school environment but persevered to earn a bachelor's
degree and an MBA from
worked harder than the average student and survived grade school, but
have scarred memories of a stifling learning environment," Bush wrote
in an e-mail exchange with the Houston Chronicle from
Bush said he developed an interest in educational reform after seeing his son Pierce go through a similar painful experience. After researching "multiple intelligences" and other educational theories, Bush said, "I developed the core beliefs that drive our business."
Developed by a Harvard cognition expert, multiple intelligence theory posits that students have different types of "intelligences" -- visual, auditory or interpersonal, for example -- and that traditional schooling does not work for all types.
"The one-size-fits-all method of instruction fails most students," Bush wrote. "We believe learning is best accomplished by doing. Learning is an active process that involves thinking. Learning is only partly about memorization, memorizing leads to forgetting. And finally we believe there is an unrealized potential for harnessing the power of technology to allow teachers to make individual and unique connections with each student."
"Multiple-intelligence theory has absolutely no data to support it," he said.
develops products for middle-school students. It offers an eighth-grade
president Leonard said this is the first full year the company has sold
its product. Previously, it provided software free to schools around
the country to generate a track record. Most of the 40,000 students
who use the software are in
HISD is by far the largest user of Ignite products, Leonard said.
The company approached HISD in 2002, and the district agreed to pay $45,000 to use the software in six middle schools in 2002-2003. HISD Superintendent Kaye Stripling said the district initially balked at expanding the program because of the annual $10,000-per-school price. Eager to enlist a large number of schools into the program, Bush agreed to let them pay half and raise the rest of the money with the foundation's help.
"We wouldn't be able to do that," said Arnold Kleinstein, vice president of WorldView Software, the nation's largest maker of social studies and history educational software, about Bush's ability to quickly persuade movers and shakers to contribute funds.
Billings, vice president of a
Iranian Ambassador Hushang Ansary, a
"Every time someone succeeds in public service, others look around to penalize people who are members of his family," Ansary said. "I'm not aware of any effort on the part of Neil Bush to benefit from the president's presence in the White House."
teachers and students in
mom heard me sing a history song, and said, 'Where'd you get that from?'
" said Elibeth Matamoros, an eighth-grader in HISD's
Connie Barr, principal at Mendez Middle School in Austin, said Ignite played a major role in increasing state test scores in social studies by 28 percent a couple of years ago.
But Wineburg, the Stanford professor, said such claims must be evaluated by independent third parties before they can be taken seriously.
and the HISD Foundation are negotiating with the
UH Education Dean Robert Wimpelberg said the terms are being hammered out and that the foundation would pay for the project.
Investors in Neil Bush's educational software company include:
-- Bush's parents, former President George and Barbara Bush.
-- Winston Wong, a Taiwanese semiconductor tycoon who founded Shanghai Grace Semiconductor Manufacturing Corp. with the son of former Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
Former Iranian ambassador to the United States Hushang Ansary, now a
-- Les and Anne Csorba of Houston, who served in the first Bush administration and donated $2,000 to President Bush's 2000 election campaign.
-- Sofidiv Inc., a division of the Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton luxury goods company.
Mohammed Al Saddah of the Ultra Horizon Co. in
Sources: Associated Press; Chronicle research
But five others lost their appeals to the Texas Education Agency, it was announced last week.
And a sixth was added to the list of local schools that did not make "adequate yearly progress."
The student population at the evening school was too small for the action to qualify as a significant problem, Ms. Vannoy said.
five schools that lost appeals - Lakeview and
But Ms. Vannoy said they did not meet the federal requirement for 95 percent participation and were therefore on the list of schools that did not make Adequate Yearly Progress.
high participation requirement caused hundreds of
"Since it's federal law, the state really can't change it," Ms. Vannoy said.
"But they [TEA officials] said that this spring we can have makeup tests for the grades and subjects in the AYP system."
She said that means students in grades three through eight, as well as grade 10, will be given a second opportunity to take tests in language arts, reading and mathematics - if they were absent on scheduled test days.
"That gives kids a better opportunity to participate," Ms. Vannoy said. "I think the intention [of the federal law] is that we be held accountable for all students. And we want all students to participate. It's just been difficult to reconcile that absences can have such an effect on a school's status."
But the new federal AYP requirement could seriously penalize schools that don't meet a 95 percent participation standard for two consecutive years. Such schools would have to notify parents that they could transfer their children to another school and have the district pay the cost of transportation.
The other schools to fail AYP did so because fewer than 95 percent of students in one or more student subgroups didn't take the TAKS test, Ms. Vannoy said.
Under the new federal law, a campus can have 95 percent overall participation in TAKS but fail AYP if that mark is not met by subgroups of 50 or more students in any of six categories: black, Hispanic, white, poor, special education, or those speaking little or no English.
The TEA made a slight change in that requirement, Ms. Vannoy said, granting appeals to schools that made the 95 percent mark without having more than nine absences among any student subgroups.
change, she said, resulted in a passing AYP grade for
Ms. Vannoy said state and local officials hope federal officials take action to reduce the impact of the 95 percent participation requirement in 2004.
"We're still waiting to hear about some Department of Education decisions that may affect AYP this coming year," she said.
HUNTSVILLE, Texas (AP) - Education Secretary Rod Paige said opponents of the Bush administration's education reforms are unfairly attacking the Houston school district he once led in an attempt to chip away at the No Child Left Behind law.
an interview Saturday with The Associated Press, Paige said the
has been a decided effort to look at the vulnerabilities at the expense
of any acknowledgment at all," said Paige, who was in
did acknowledge that the dropout definition used by the state of
"The idea that if we can beat up and make the Houston Independent School District or the state of Texas like some pinata -- beat up on it until something good falls out -- is mistaken because this bill is much broader than that and is much stronger than that," Paige said of the federal No Child Left Behind law, which was based in part on Texas' education reforms begun in the 1980s.
The federal law passed in 2001 calls for expanded testing, higher teacher quality and greater achievement among students, particularly those in poor districts.
The federal No Child Left Behind Act requires school paraprofessionals to either earn an associate's degree or higher, pass a basic skills test or complete two years of relevant coursework at an institution of higher education or approved programs at the district level.
The requirements must be met by 2006, or the teachers will lose their jobs.
a recent evening at
more I can learn about coming up with strategies to help (students),
the better it is for them and me," Lisa Durant, a 37-year-old
Teachers' aides have seen their classroom roles increase in recent years, as an influx of special education students and tougher overall standards shifted duties from mundane tasks, such as stapling papers, to direct involvement in a child's learning.
Most paraprofessionals are women and mothers, and many have only a high school diploma. As many as 75 percent of the 10,000 paraprofessionals represented by the MTA do not meet the requirements of the law, with the highest concentration of those in the cities, said Kathleen Skinner, director of professional development at the Massachusetts Teachers Association.
"In essence, what you have is the neediest kids getting services from the least capable person," Skinner said. "Not that the para is not capable of being capable, but it's rather that the districts have ignored them."
School officials expect many aides will retire rather than meet the tougher requirements. Those who plan to stay wonder if their salaries will reflect their new skill level. Nationally, teachers' aides make an average of about $15,350, compared with a teacher's average salary of $45,930.
should be requirements," said Carol Belmont, a
the class at Brockton High, concerns about the new requirement give
way to the fun of learning. Linda Woo, a 54-year-old library aide at
"I can't tell you how exciting that was," she said.
help give parents and students more say in how the limited funds for
Gifted and Talented Education, or GATE, are spent, the
The committees, made up mostly of the parents of GATE students, give recommendations to each school's principal on how they would like to see the GATE budget spent, said district Superintendent Stan Carrizosa.
"We wanted to give parents the chance to influence how to spend the GATE money," Carrizosa said. "This makes everyone work together in a positive way."
Parents at most schools held their first committee meetings over the last month or two.
Schouest, an 18-year-old
"We've talked about trying to increase people's awareness of GATE," Schouest said. "There are a lot of parents who say they've never heard of it."
But the committees don't have much money to work with.
The amount of funding each school receives depends on how many GATE students it has. Carrizosa said the total amounts can range from a couple of hundred dollars to several thousand depending on the school and its population.
The amount of money schools get for each GATE pupil was slightly lowered this year as the district deals with lower levels of overall funding from the state, said Karen Rowe, administrator of curriculum and instruction for the district.
She said most schools use the money for training teachers and buying instruction materials.
Carrizosa said the committees were formed in part because the district is reviewing its GATE policies to put them in line with the federal No Child Left Behind Act.
the committees also came about after a brouhaha over GATE students last
school year at
The school had a decreasing number of students a few years ago as many of the residents in the neighborhood aged beyond their child-raising years, Carrizosa said.
The district allowed students from other schools to transfer to Royal Oaks, and Carrizosa said teachers used some innovative techniques with gifted students.
"We never had a formal GATE program at Royal Oaks, but there were a lot of GATE students there," he said.
Carrizosa said younger families began to move back into the area, and the transfer policy had to end so they could accommodate new students at their neighborhood school.
Every move seems measured and must be delivered with control. Getting it right is arduous.
"It's fun to be doing those moves, but it's harder than it looks," said Matt Horn, an eighth-grader at West Middle School, who got three tae kwon-do lessons in a six-week "encore" physical fitness class. "It's a good workout."
Patricia Fodor and Jim Vandermeer, West's physical education teachers, introduce students to some non-traditional sports such as tae kwon-do, badminton, archery, floor hockey and dance aerobics. Their hope is students will experience some fitness activities they enjoy enough to do throughout their lifetime.
They say they don't get enough time with students to get or keep them physically fit. So their aim is to teach lessons and skills the students can use to keep themselves fit and ignite a passion for being healthy.
"Sometimes it seems like there's this big fitness craze going on, but we find that strong emphasis is clustered in a small percentage of students," Vandermeer said. "I'd say only one-third to one-half of our kids are regularly involved in some physical activity outside of school."
That's why several physical education teachers are concerned gym seems to be getting crowded out of the school day -- a trend that parallels a nationwide increase in childhood obesity.
Community Hospital Foundation is preparing to launch a pilot program
targeting childhood obesity next year. A recent local survey by the
many of the parents themselves are not very active. A report by the
Governor's Council says that 55 percent of
"I don't want to say it's a battle, but more and more it feels like a battle getting time with the kids," said Tim deForest, a PE teacher at Waukazoo and Woodside elementaries. "An administrator once said to me, 'You just taught a great lesson, but how does it relate to the MEAP?' "
DeForest doesn't like having to justify physical education as if it were a luxury.
"I'm teaching activities to keep your body healthy," deForest said. "If you don't have your health, not much else matters."
physical activity improves a child's physical, psychological and emotional
health. There's also a compelling link between a child's physical well-being
and his or her ability to achieve in the classroom, said Bob Haveman,
an elementary gym teacher who leads
These programs hold schools accountable for students' continual improvement in academics. That's why educators in many districts are devoting more time in the school day to language arts, math, science and social studies, and less time to physical education and fine arts.
"If the school day was a 2-pound sack, we're guilty of trying to load 3 pounds into it," Haveman said. "It's all good stuff, but there's not time or money for everything."
Although he sees the big picture, Haveman believes parents need help from schools to get their children -- especially the non- athletes -- up and moving.
Vandermeer said his most satisfying experience as a teacher came from an eighth-grader who ran a 12-minute mile.
That's not a feat you will read about on the sports pages, but it inspired cheers and high fives among the rest of the class.
That student had been very overweight as a sixth-grader, and had difficulty walking a mile.
He steadily became more fit over two years to run the mile in 12 minutes. The accomplishment excited everyone, Vandermeer said.
wish we had it every day of the year because it's my favorite class,"
said Alyssa Israels, a member of
Withers, The Journal News,
For Tuckahoe's School Superintendent Dr. Michael Yazurlo the "No Child Left Behind" law - a federal mandate that requires states to set appropriate achievement standards for children - does not provide appropriate financial support.
"The law produces many mandates costing lots of money, but (does) not provide much money. We finally have a system of accountability in place. Public schools need to be accountable like anyone else, but when you realize public schools function as a product of taxpayer money, we can't always go to the taxpayer when we get unfunded mandates from the federal or state governments."
The NCLB law is the product of President George W. Bush. When Bush ran for office in 1999, he made public education reform an important plank in his campaign.
some ideas from his tenure as governor of
NCLB, which applies to all public schools across the country, requires states to come up with levels of achievement for grades 3 to 8, and to administer annual tests to see if students are meeting state expectations.
If schools do not meet their own standards, then parents may exercise certain rights, such as sending a child to another district school or having the district provide tutoring. Those rights are now mentioned on the New York State Education Department Web site: www.nysed.gov.
has pretty sweeping changes in it, and we felt it was important that
parents be aware of the various aspects of the act," said Tom Dunn,
There are three important parts of NCLB. The law requires that by 2014 all students should "be performing at the proficiency level in reading, language arts, math, and science." Yearly progress must be shown to reach that goal and Title I schools that do not show progress in the same subject and grade two years in a row will be tagged as schools "in need of improvement."
Such schools must make public their plan of bettering scores. Local and state education officials have to inform parents what is happening on the respective levels to improve the school. Children attending these schools may be allowed to transfer to a different school in the district or receive extra help supplied by the district. States are required to keep a list of schools designated "in need of improvement."
Even schools not designated as such will be asked to come up with progress reports. At the end of the academic year, every school is required to create a public report card on how well the school is meeting the academic standards created by the state.
The report card will also inform parents as to how many students are functioning at high or low levels. Achievement levels will also be broken down according to "sub-groups" based on gender, economic backgrounds, racial groups and language backgrounds.
school districts such as Tuckahoe, Bronxville or
Nonetheless, this year the New Rochelle district announced a new initiative in which testing will take place in grades 3, 5, 6 and 7 in addition to the yearly state assessments already taking place in grades 4 and 8. The new tests are meant to be a tool for the district and parents, and will not be publicly announced as are the standard assessments.
At present, it is uncertain how NCLB will ultimately be implemented; that uncertainty, however, does not change the fact that NCLB is the new guidepost for public education.
But for Yazurlo, NCLB is fraught with problems, especially economic ones.
"I will follow the law to the letter, but as a practicing superintendent it is a bit disconcerting," Yazurlo said.
KAREN W. ARENSON, New York Times,
Leon Botstein has long believed that teachers colleges have been getting it all wrong. Now he is doing something about it.
the president of
education schools in the
In the Bard program, students will take as many courses in the subjects they are going to teach — English, history, physics or math — as they will in pedagogy. In most graduate education programs, students mostly take courses about how to teach and few, if any, graduate courses in their fields.
Dr. Botstein said he hoped the new Bard Master of Arts in Teaching program would serve as a model for reshaping teacher education. The program was approved by the New York State Education Department last month and will start in June.
G. Imig, president of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher
Dr. Imig said most teacher education programs now emphasize pedagogy and reflect the regulations of the states they are in.
Doris T. Garner, who oversees the evaluation of teacher education programs for New York State, said the state does not require a specific number of courses or credits in pedagogy, but looks at whether certain "competencies" are being taught, including knowledge about human development, how students learn and how to manage a classroom.
"If a school of education had no pedagogy," she said, "it wouldn't fly."
Botstein said he would have liked even more training in subject knowledge
and less pedagogy, but had to compromise to meet
Bard is also asking that applicants have an undergraduate major in the subject they want to teach, or equivalent course work.
Diane Ravitch, an education historian and an advocate of stronger teacher preparation, said the course work described in Bard's catalog appeared "for the most part, substantive and rigorous."
But, she added, "much of the surrounding rhetoric about methods and goals" — material on teacher reflection and critical thinking, for example — "sounds very much like a typical ed school."
some education deans, like Alfred S. Posamentier of the
Dr. Botstein said that starting the high school renewed his conviction that teachers need better preparation. The school hired college professors with doctorates to teach many of the classes in the second two years of the program, but hired regular high school teachers for the 9th- and 10th-grade classes. Finding 9th- and 10th-grade teachers steeped in their disciplines was "one of the issues that came up," he said.
Bard also runs the Institute for Writing and Thinking, which has trained 47,000 teachers from middle schools, high schools and colleges in the past 21 years. Ric Campbell, the former associate director of the institute and a former public school teacher, is directing the new master's degree program.
Students will pay $24,500 in tuition for the 12-month program. They will take six graduate courses in their fields and six in pedagogy. They will also have extensive student teaching experience and conduct research in schools about what kind of teaching is most effective.
Bard hopes to have 40 to 60 students in its first class, with no more than 15 per discipline, and to add disciplines and students as it goes along.
has arranged to work with some public schools nearby; their officials,
including Jan Volpe, superintendent of the
But, she added, subject knowledge has to be balanced with pedagogy, because "not everybody can teach."
Ben Feller, Associated Press,
But in these urban centers, where large numbers of disadvantaged kids live, students compete well when compared with national peers of the same race, ethnicity or economic level.
Ten school districts volunteered to set the city benchmark in the National Assessment of Educational Progress, regarded as the nation's report card on a range of subjects. The goal is to give these cities a valid way to compare themselves with areas that share problems and population trends and to track their progress on a test known for its stringent scoring.
Across the country, in reading, only 30 percent of fourth-graders and eighth-graders reach at least the key level, proficient, which means competency over difficult material. In math, 31 percent of fourth-graders and 27 percent of eighth-graders do at least that well.
In almost every case, the city students did worse, the new scores show. That means less than three out of 10 students achieved at the level they should have, based on federal standards.
sole exception was
The chosen school districts account for one out of eight of the nation's poor students, one out of seven minority students and one out of six students with limited English.
Darvin Winick, chairman of the independent board that oversees the test, said the scores should erode the myth that students in urban districts can't compete. City comparisons to national averages can obscure the fact that, in a few cases, black students in the cities scored better than blacks nationwide, as also was the case for some Hispanic students.
Still, notable performance gaps with whites persisted.
not saying it's a positive finding for minorities. What I'm saying is
it's not the urban district environment that's driving it," said Winick,
an education adviser to President Bush when Bush was governor of
Education Secretary Rod Paige commended the districts for taking part. His views of the results were less rosy than those of Winick, whom Paige appointed to his post.
"The achievement gap in these districts is something that I find truly worrisome," Paige said. "It is a problem nationally, but in some of the districts, it is abysmal. ... As a nation, we must stand united against a culture that mocks academic success in certain communities."
This is the first time in the test's history, which dates to 1969, that district scores were available in math. Six of the cities took part in the first district-level reading tests in 2002, and most of them have improved their scores since last year, said Michael Casserly, executive director of the Council of the Great City Schools, a coalition of urban districts.
The reading test ranged from literary analysis to comprehension of basic daily tasks, while the math test covered such areas as probability, algebra and mathematical reasoning.
Religious clothing generally allowed in
President Jacques Chirac's call to ban religious symbols and clothing
in state schools and hospitals has met with controversy in
American students generally have the right to wear religious garb such as a Jewish skullcap, a Muslim scarf or a cross in public school, although restrictions can be made if the school has a dress code that is not directed at a particular faith.
For example, a school trying to limit gang activity may set a dress code that incidentally bars religious clothing like headwear, according to Jeffrey Sinensky, general counsel for the American Jewish Committee.
If a school has such a dress code, administrators still have the power to make exceptions if a student asks to wear a religious item. School officials usually accommodate students, though occasionally disputes arise that make their way into court, said Sinensky and Ibrahim Hooper, of the Council on American-Islamic Relations, a civil rights group.
Hooper said there have been sporadic cases in which school districts have attempted to ban headscarves or persuade Muslim girls not to wear them, usually from a mistaken belief that they disrupt the school environment. But the conflicts have usually been quickly resolved, he said.
Rules regarding what teachers can wear are different. Several states bar public school teachers from wearing religious clothing, in an attempt to have a religiously neutral classroom.
big cities top
By Lori Olszewski,
Tribune staff reporter,
Despite years of efforts
at education reform,
Students from the
The Trial Urban District Assessment, the broadest national comparison of its kind, sampled several thousand students' scores in 10 urban areas, to compare students who face similar challenges, such as poverty and language barriers.
"On the one hand, it's encouraging to see proof-positive that big urban districts can educate students as well as other districts, and that demography does not determine achievement," said Kati Haycock, director of the non-profit Education Trust. "But it's also a reminder of how far some of our biggest districts have to go to realize the learning potential of their students."
Some educators said
the school systems that did well, such as
"Successful reforms balance standardization in the low-performing schools matched by support for innovation in schools that demonstrate achievement," said Warren Simmons, director of the Annenberg Institute for School Reform.
This marks the second
year NAEP test results were available from a sample of individual urban
school districts. Usually, NAEP is only reported as a statewide result,
and historically only about 80 percent of states participated. This
year was the first that all 50 states and the
NAEP is considered one of the more difficult state tests required under No Child Left Behind.
Last year, 2002 NAEP
reading results were broken out for grades 4 and 8 in six urban districts:
On the 2003 test,
here were below the urban averages in both categories. In reading, 40
the test was an improvement for
"We know we have a lot of work to do," said Barbara Eason-Watkins, chief education officer for the Chicago Public Schools.
She said she was pleased
to see 4th-grade reading scores rise, while she stressed that
Eason-Watkins and other educators also cautioned against drawing too many conclusions from the NAEP data because only a small sample of each district's students take the test. Some educators question whether the samples were selected in the same way from each district as well.
Its success with black students, who still make up the majority of the public school population, continues to lag.
The Council of Great City Schools, an organization representing Chicago and more than 60 of the nation's largest systems, lobbied for the urban analysis. The group wanted districts with similar challenges, such as large numbers of poor students or students who don't speak English, to have information they could share and compare.
"Cities are capable of outpacing state and national trends," said Michael Casserly, executive director of the Council of Great City Schools.
For the first time, the National Assessment of Educational Progress test reported results for 10 major urban school districts across the country. In most cases, Chicago Public Schools ranked below the urban average.
Results are based on a representative sample of students tested at each grade level. Percentages represent the portion of students who performed at or above the basic level.*
Source: 2003 Trial Urban District Reading Assessment and 2003 Trial Urban District Mathematics Assessment using the National Assessment of Educational Progress test.
African American and Hispanic students in special education were far more likely than white and Asian students in recent years to be educated in special classrooms instead of integrated into the general population, according to a study of special education in Montgomery County Public Schools.
The study also found that students who live in poverty were almost 21/2 times more likely than higher-income students to be labeled emotionally disturbed, and African Americans were almost three times more likely than whites to be identified as mentally retarded, a ratio that lowers only slightly when controlling for income.
The report was prepared by Margaret J. McLaughlin and Sandra Embler of the University of Maryland School of Education under the auspices of the county's Continuous Improvement Team. The Board of Education had directed the team to come up with a set of indicators for measuring the status of special education in the county. The report was completed in the summer but presented to the board last week as part of an update on special education services.
"Most of it was anticipated, but to get anything done you have to have a baseline for improvement," said Ricki Sabia, a co-chairman of the Continuous Improvement Team. "The whole point of the report was to bring up these issues, and the next step is to drill down what to do about it."
The research, conducted from 2000 to 2002, found that black and Hispanic special education students were more likely than other disabled students to be taught in segregated settings instead of regular classrooms. State guidelines require the county to increase the number of special education students integrated into regular classrooms.
Black students received an average of 16.8 hours of special education services in total weekly compared with 14.8 for Hispanics and 12.4 hours for whites. Low-income students received 16.3 hours weekly, compared with 12 hours for the rest of the population.
For students with and without disabilities, a gap in academic performance exists by race and by income. Brian Bartels, Montgomery County's director of special education, said this correlation may partially explain why black, Hispanic and low-income disabled students are receiving more intensive services in less integrated environments, not just in Montgomery County but elsewhere in the state as well.
Educators may recommend more intensive services -- not necessarily in separate settings -- because of the greater instructional needs of students with lower achievement levels, Bartels said.
Attendance rates for special education students were, depending on school level, from 1 percentage point to 3 percentage points lower than rates for students in regular programs. Disparity in absences was greatest in high schools. Students with emotional disabilities and low-income students were most likely to have many absences.
Bartels said depression and behavioral problems may be keeping some emotionally disturbed students home, though he also said the attendance rate may have been skewed by a small number of students with very large numbers of absences.
Regardless of income, Asian American students were less likely than those in any other racial or ethnic group to receive special education services. They were, however, more likely to receive assistance in speech and language.
Thirteen percent of students with disabilities received no scores on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. The CTBS is not used to comply with the federal No Child Left Behind Act, but test participation is a concern because the law requires that 95 percent of students in any group, including special education, take standardized tests.
Of the students who took the test, 70 percent received extra time to complete it, and more than 50 percent of sixth-graders and 25 percent of second-graders used a calculator -- both permitted accommodations.
In surveys, special education teachers said parents do not support them in discipline or instruction or recognize their accomplishments, while parents and special education teachers felt that teachers in regular classrooms have low expectations for disabled students.
DIANE R. STEPP,
Cherokee school officials
are sounding off in the state Capitol and in
In a strongly worded resolution sent to state legislators and U.S. Sen. Zell Miller (D-Ga.), Cherokee board members urged changes in the No Child Left Behind act to address a list of "serious concerns."
All four Cherokee high schools, all but one middle school and several elementary schools were on the state's "needs improvement" list this year, which was compiled based on federal guidelines. They landed there largely because too few students among certain subgroups took the state curriculum test last spring.
"By arbitrarily and unilaterally creating AYP [adequate yearly progress] formulas, the federal [and state] government has damaged the credibility, reputation and morale of some very good and, in some cases, excellent schools," board members said.
Suggested changes include not assigning equal weight to all of the progress calculations.
Cherokee school officials
also want to see that students who do not speak English and have been
The unanimously adopted resolution also says that federal funding provided to implement the requirements of the federal education standards "is insufficient to meet realistic goals for all students."
Walton principal lauds football team
Kudos for Cherokee High
varsity football team members came from
win over the undefeated team from
"Your team played almost flawlessly and deserved the victory," Higgins wrote. "The football team represented your school and community extremely well in sportsmanship."
Student art to be shown at airport
Beginning this month,
internationally arriving and departing passengers at
By Jodi S. Cohen, Tribune
With their backpacks
and coats scattered along a hallway at
The door swung open, and the pupils, overwhelmingly black and Latino, rushed inside. "Faster, people, faster," shouted 10-year-old Rebekah Qualls as 14 classmates scrambled to the carpet in front of the chalkboard for extra practice calculating perimeter, area and volume.
Later, after the morning bell rang and the rest of the pupils arrived, the class practiced reading skills as their teacher, Vickie Witt, met in small groups with pupils struggling to understand how to summarize a story. This individual attention, practiced schoolwide, is part of what's behind the school's rising test scores and the relatively small achievement gap between minority students and their white peers, educators say.
"Think about it," said Witt, who has a class of 20 pupils. "I know what my kids don't get ... I am trying to meet their individual needs."
For the first time this year, the performance of racial and ethnic minorities, poor and special education students,groups arguably long overlooked, have consequences. The federal No Child Left Behind Act requires that these subgroups, in addition to the schoolwide population, meet certain goals. If even one subgroup fails to meet the standards, the school is considered academically troubled.
Although some schools'
numbers are in dispute, the Tribune has verified that at
While a difference still
exists, it is one of the smallest among the state's racially integrated
schools. What's more, it is considerably lower than at peer schools
with similar low-income and racially diverse populations, such as Dewey
"I would love for it to not make a difference of black versus white. That is possible; it is just a lot of work," said Independence Principal Faith Dahlquist. "We don't set the kids aside and say the African-American students are going to get this or that. But we do try to look at who is struggling and what that child needs."
Parents and teachers list other reasons for the success: academic goals set by students, extraordinary staff dedication, strong parental involvement and curriculum changes based on test-score data.
They do it all while spending $6,881 for each pupil, lower than the $8,181 average expenditure per student statewide.
Dahlquist can't remember the last time the school bought new desks
or furniture. Around 1996, the janitor obtained stacks of library chairs
Educators have long debated reasons for the achievement gap. Some say there are lower expectations for minorities and negative peer influences. At least part of the chasm may be linked to family educational background and income level, the most reliable predictor of test scores.
Ronald Ferguson, a
Dahlquist, nicknamed "Data Queen" by her staff, also attributes the improvements to constant analysis of standardized test scores, reading assessments and other evaluations. "We try to base all of our decisions not on `we think this is happening,' but on data," she said.
In 2002, when the data showed that only 41 percent of 3rd graders passed the state writing test, teachers put extra emphasis on writing. This year, 74 percent passed the test, and a recent visitor to the school found a 3rd-grade classroom practicing expository essays.
Teacher Jeri Duran reminded pupils to indent paragraphs. "That is one of the things they'll mark you down for on the ISAT writing," she said as they wrote an essay on the perks of living in the White House.
Sometimes, the data may land a pupil on a school "watch list" of those scoring lower than expected on a district test or reading evaluation. The struggling kids then get tutored before or after school, meet with a reading specialist during the day, or get paired with a peer tutor.
Olah Mehmood's 3rd-grade daughter, Sarah, landed on the list at the beginning of last year. "She was in the warning and I was terrified," Mehmood said. But a few months later, the 9-year-old was reading at the top of her class. "I was so amazed that I went to take a picture," her mother said, crediting the extra tutoring after school.
First-grade teacher Maggi Jenkins splits her class into groups and then listens to each pupil read during regular class time. The groups change weekly depending on student progress, a challenge with 27 students in her class.
On a recent day, four pupils took turns reading to her while, in other parts of the room, pupils used PowerPoint to read words on a computer and huddled in pairs to read with each other. Her pupils range from Level 3, reading books with five words on a page, to Level 18, reading complex stories with plot, multiple characters and more than 20 words per page.
Indeed, at a mid-September
conference of 160 teachers from about 30 districts, the instructor asked
which teachers knew their students' reading level. Only the two
"The rest of the teachers were like, it's only September," Witt said. "We were surprised we were the only ones."
Pupils also know their reading and writing levels. Jenna Cawthon, a 5th grader, pointed to a chart in her folder that shows she is writing at a Level 4--"you understand stuff but you don't get it that well," she said--but her goal is to reach a Level 5 or 6 by the end of the year.
Dahlquist said having pupils chart their own progress gives them a sense of empowerment and investment in their education. Last year, she met with every 3rd grader as they explained their goals.
She also celebrates the pupils' achievements. She has done cartwheels for a 1st-grade class that met its reading goal, and dyed her hair purple for another.
Last week, after the former Valley View school district superintendent heard about the school's progress, he sent a bouquet of flowers and balloons.
"Congratulations on your successes!" he wrote on the attached card. "You know that this is what it's about."
By Stephanie Banchero and Darnell Little, Tribune staff reporters, December 19, 2003
The state testing data
released Friday were supposed to permit the most sophisticated and detailed
assessment ever of the
Newly revamped as a result of federal reforms, the state's annual report card is designed to ferret out schools whose high average test scores might hide the fact that certain groups of students--such as low-income, disabled or minority children--are struggling.
It is also supposed to show whether schools tested all of their pupils--or tried to boost scores by telling low achievers to stay home on exam day.
But the data are so
riddled with errors--at least 34,261 mistakes involving about 75 percent
State officials acknowledge
they may have mistakenly placed 368 schools on a federal failure list
because of data mistakes. The roster includes such perennial all-stars
Most of the errors came from misidentifying students' ethnic background, income level, special education status or English language skills. But schools also made mistakes in calculating enrollment and the percent of teachers considered qualified.
By far, the greatest
number of errors came from the misidentification of low-income students.
About 9 percent of the state's 234,696 low-income test-takers were not
identified as such on test booklets, making it impossible to accurately
calculate the academic performance of low-income students across
State officials decided last week to let 458 schools--about 12 percent of state schools--submit corrections to the data. But it will take until February to recalculate the statistics, and even then the final state report card will include thousands of mistakes from the remaining schools, the Tribune found.
"I think people
will legitimately question the validity of the state testing system
and the validity of the No Child Left Behind Law because of all these
errors," said Robert Rice, principal of
State Superintendent of Education Robert Schiller acknowledged there are problems with the current report card but said it would cost the state at least $400,000 to correct every error and reissue it.
Schiller points out that much of the information is reliable, including schools' overall pass rates in reading and math, and how well students performed at each grade level. He also contends that the picture of how well various subgroups did on the tests won't change much once the fixes are made.
"At the end of the day, I don't think there will be much variance," he said.
But Lawrence Aleamoni, a statistician who advises
"To make a claim
like that ... is not anchored in any data, any statistics, any probability,"
said Aleamoni, a professor at the
Aleamoni also warned that the mistake-ridden report cards could have significant consequences.
"Schools are being held accountable for the results, and they are taking actions because of the results, and these results may very well be flawed," he said.
When it was signed into law last year, the No Child Left Behind Act was praised by Democrats and Republicans alike as a way to hold schools accountable for the performance of all children, not just a majority of students.
For decades, schools were judged by their overall scores, limiting failure primarily to poor and urban campuses. But the federal reform requires states to separately track minority, low-income, limited-English proficient and special education students, demanding that each subgroup within a school meet the state achievement goals.
If even one subgroup lags, the school is considered academically troubled. Continued failure can result in state sanctions. In the case of low-income schools, federal sanctions, as serious as closing, can be invoked. The law also insists that schools make sure that 95 percent of the student body and of each subgroup takes an exam.
But if students are misidentified on test booklets, it is impossible to track how subgroups are performing or if the schools met test participation standards for those groups.
Most problems in
For example, the state
data show that
Such problems can arise
if a school does not ensure students are identified properly. In this
case, the data indicate that only 38 of
Such mistakes are compounded when students from a particular subgroup are not identified properly, their test scores will not be counted when calculating how well that subgroup scored on the tests.
Kathy Christie, vice president of the Education Commission of the States, said no one knows for certain how many mistakes have been made nationwide or how many schools may have been tagged erroneously as failures. But she said schools are scrambling to fix the problems. "People read about the act, they heard about the reporting aspects of the act, but until it came back to smack them in the face, the seriousness of it didn't sink in," said Christie, whose group tracks whether states comply with No Child Left Behind.
Officials with the Illinois State Board of Education knew last year that they had a data collection problem, but were unsure of its breadth. A Tribune analysis of last year's data found that 3,207 schools made nearly 58,000 reporting errors.
Schiller said he warned schools to be more vigilant this year and even offered training courses to help them understand the complicated new system. He also gave local officials 45 days in the fall to look over their data and make changes.
"No matter how much training you do, it comes down to the attention to detail and whether people are willing to put in the time to make sure the information is correct," he said. "Obviously, many schools fell short in this regard."
But local schools point the finger at the state, saying the data they received were not easily readable and did not show whether a school ran afoul of the law. Principals had to know the specifics of the law and make their own calculations.
Moreover, they point out that the state could have detected widespread mistakes by checking the data before sending it.
"I think the bottom line is that we can all do a better job next year," said Hank Bangser, superintendent of New Trier High School District 203, which landed on the failure list because of a data mistake. "I know we will make a more concerted effort on our end."
The problems with collecting and analyzing data have fueled the controversy surrounding No Child Left Behind, which has come under fire from educators who contend the law is inadequately funded and from community activists who say schools are inventing ingenious ways to skirt key provisions.
"I take it as a badge of honor that I am on the list because it shows how bogus, ridiculous, stupid, crazy this law is," said James Lalley, principal of Northside College Prep. "How can anyone take this law seriously when it is flawed in so many ways? I think the trouble collecting this data illustrates this point perfectly."
Illinois State Board of Education